The main aim of this research work is to identify natural and environmental vulnerability distribution in Astrakhan, Russia. This paper identifies, assess, and classify natural and environmental vulnerability using landscape pattern from multidisciplinary approach, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. A model was developed by following thematic layers: land use/cover, vegetation, geology, geomorphology, and soil in ArcGIS 10.3 software. According to numerical results vulnerability classified into five levels: low, reasonable, moderate, high and extreme vulnerability by mean of cluster principal.
Results are shows that in natural vulnerability maximum area covered by moderate (54.62%) and environmental vulnerability concentrated by moderate (54.00%) vulnerability. So, study area has at medial level vulnerability. In the study area encroachment, population growth, industrialization and governmental polices for environmental protection are main cause for vulnerability. This study is helpful for decision making for eco-environmental recovering and rebuilding as well as predicting the future development. Astrakhan is a city in Russia, the capital of the Astrakhan region, located about 1,411 km southeast of Moscow. The city is an important railway hub, sea, and river port. The population of Astrakhan is about 532,000 in 2015, the area – 208 sq-km.
Astrakhan fertile area (the Volga River delta) was the region of the Golden Horde and Khazaria states capitals. First written mentioning of Astrakhan settlement was made by travelers in the beginning of the 13th century. Mongol leader Tamerlane destroyed the town in 1395. In 1459-1556, it was the capital of Astrakhan Khanate. Archaeologists found the remains of it about 12 km from present Astrakhan. Tsar Ivan the Terrible Conquered Astrakhan Khanate and its capital in 1556.